viernes, 1 de mayo de 2009

Partículas: lección 22

とも(2) - Usado para indicar una inclusión.

Nombre + とも (で)

5パーセントの手数料ともで100ドル払った
Pagué 100 dólares, incluyendo un 5% de comisión.


(10) - Indica qué o quién realiza la acción (actor) en una oración pasiva o causativa-pasiva.También indica sobre quién recae la acción en una oración causativa.

Nombre (actor) + + verbo pasivo

Anaは魚を食べられた
El gato se ha comido el pez de Ana.
El gato es el que realiza la acción, comerse el pez. Al estar el verbo en forma pasiva vemos que la acción afecta a Ana, el sujeto. Una traducción más literal podría ser: El pez de Ana ha sido comido por el gato.

Nombre (sujeto sobre el que recae la acción) + + verbo causativo

先生は学生本を読ませる
El profesor obliga a los alumnos a leer el libro.
En este caso, la partícula に señala al sujeto sobre el que recae la acción del verbo causativo, los alumnos, mientras que は indica el sujeto que realiza la acción (obligar a leer).

Nombre (actor) + + verbo causativo-pasivo

彼は友達酒を飲ませられた
Sus amigos le hicieron beber sake (a él).
Literalmente: Él fue obligado a beber sake por sus amigos. Es el mismo caso del gato. Los amigos son los que realizan la acción y "él" es el que recibe la acción.


Pronto explicaré como hacer oraciones pasivas y causativas.


(4) - Indica incertidumbre sobre un estado o razón.

Verbo/adjetivo + でしょう/だろう +

外は寒いだろう
Me pregunto si fuera hace frío.

Verbo/adjetivo + の + 

値段が高いのこの品物はあまり売れない
Me pregunto si el precio es alto, este artículo apenas se vende.


(5) - Muestra una pregunta incrustada en una oración.

Interrogante + partícula interrogativa + verbo + +.....

彼は何時に来る分かりません
No se a qué hora vendrá él.

Verbo/adjetivo +  + どう +

これが高いどう知らない
No se si esto es caro o no.


だの - Indica dos o más objetos o acciones de una larga lista. Es reemplazable por とか.

Nombre + だの + nombre + だの

Martaは犬だのだのを飼っている
Marta tiene un perro, un gato (y otros animales)

Verbo infinitivo + だの + verbo infinitivo + だの

飲むだの食べるだの踊るだのした
Bebimos, comimos, bailamos....


Vocabulario:

手数料  てすうりょう  comisión
値段    ねだん   precio
飼う     かう criar un animal

3 comentarios:

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